Seed cycling for no period? Nope.

Seed cycling has been touted as helping to regulate menstrual cycles. One is supposed to take a combination of flax and pumpkin seeds (1-2 tablespoons each) during the first half of the cycle (from when your period starts until you ovulate, the “follicular phase”) and then sesame and sunflower seeds during the second half (after ovulation until your period starts again, the “luteal phase”). And if you have no period, you’re told to follow the cycle of the moon, taking the flax/pumpkin seeds from full moon to new moon, and the sesame/sunflower combo from new moon to full moon.

quick summary of evidence-based recommendations:

I find no support in the medical literature for the idea of switching seeds based on cycle phase, in fact, every study uses one (or two) seeds consistently for weeks to months at a time before benefits are seen. The highest quality evidence suggests flax seed for increasing luteal phase length, and sesame seeds for women with PCOS (increases sex homone binding globulin, which is typically low in women with PCOS). I recommend using these seeds consistently, not switching back and forth. If you do not currently have menstrual cycles, the strongest evidence suggests benefits of daily flax seed consumption.

Info on seed cycling

In some places discussions of seed cycling seems reasonable – like this article at Natural Health Perspectives, or this one at Herbal Academy where they discuss the lignans from the seed hulls as helping to modulate hormones (these are phytoestrogens that can affect your hormone levels) and fatty acids in the seed body that provide omega fatty acids that provide the building blocks for making the hormones estradiol and progesterone.  And then there seems to be a protocol making the rounds where the explanation is that during the follicular phase that you use flax and pumpkin seeds “to block excess estrogen” and then sesame and sunflower seeds during the second half of the cycle “to help block excess estrogen”. Um, what? that makes no sense. There are times in your cycle when you need and want estrogen! (like when the follicle is growing during the follicular phase).

In line with my ongoing series examining supplement use and recovery of missing periods (hypothalamic amenorrhea), I wanted to examine the scientific underpinnings of this idea. Is there any real basis to switching seeds during the middle of the cycle (especially when the explanation of how the seeds are affecting hormones seems to be the same in both phases…)?

what is the evidence for seed cycling?

If you look in the medical literature (pubmed or google scholar searches), there are no published studies comparing seed cycling with any kind of control, or looking at alterations in hormone levels when using the variation of seeds. So the only evidence we have is inference from other studies, and anecdotes.

There is some evidence for the individual seeds. I covered flax seed in a recent post, In summary, flax seed has been shown in clinical studies to be associated with more ovulatory cycles, longer luteal phase, lower stress hormones and perception of stress. I do think that having 10g (ground) flax seed per day is a worthwhile addition to your daily fare, based not only on the cycle related benefits I just listed, but also overall health benefits.

So now let’s look at the other seeds. In seed cycling, flax seed is supposed to be paired with pumpkin seed. Continue reading

No period or irregular periods? Flax seed might help

There are multiple benefits to consuming flax seed, that I’ve discovered as I research the seeds used in seed cycling. 1) Fewer anovulatory cycles in normal cycling women, 2) longer luteal phase with higher progesterone/estradiol ratio, 3) reduced stress hormones and perception of stress, 4) a number of more general health benefits including improved lipid profile, reduction in risk of cardiovascular disease, decreased A1c in type II diabetics, and potentially cancer prevention. I will discuss the first three in this post – for an excellent review of the other health benefits, please see this article.

There are three major components in flax seed that are thought to have health benefits – the fiber (6% of dry weight), the lignan alpha-linoleic acid (20%), and the phytoestrogen precursor secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG, 1%). One can consume either whole (ground) flax seed or lignan or SDG extracts. If you’re trying to recover your period I would recommend ground flax as the relevant studies were mostly performed with that rather than extracts. For other health benefits, I would suggest looking more closely at the studies (in this review, for example) to determine whether they used extract or whole flax (many used specific extracts).

Flax seed and menstrual cycles

Hormone levels and menstrual cycle parameters in women consuming 10g flax seed per day were examined for the duration of three menstrual cycles (comparing with three menstrual cycles in the same women where no flax was consumed but diet remained otherwise the same). For each woman, the second and third cycles were examined.

There were two important findings. First, there were no anovulatory cycles (0/36 cycles in 18 women) in women consuming flax seed compared with three anovulatory cycles during the control phase (3/36 cycles in 18 women, anovulation occurred in three different women).

Second, luteal phase when consuming flax seed was 1.2 days longer than with no flax seed consumption. I loved that this paper actually graphed the change in luteal phase between the flax/no flax cycles rather than just reporting averages: 1 woman had a shorter LP by 1 day, five women had no change, one had half a day longer LP, five had a 1-day longer LP, two had a 1.5-day longer LP, and one each had 2, 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 day longer LPs! Both of these results suggest that daily flax seed consumption might be beneficial for women trying to regulate periods, and those with short luteal phases (another tool to add to the short LP arsenal!)

When hormone levels were examined, there were no significant changes in any hormones: estradiol in the early or mid-follicular phase, or progesterone or estradiol during the luteal phase. Testosterone levels during the mid-follicular phase were about 10% higher, a significant difference. The researchers speculated this might affect the luteal phase length. There were also 25% higher progesterone to estradiol ratios during the luteal phase (non-significant 10% higher progesterone and ~15% lower estradiol combined to give a significantly higher P/E2 ratio under flax seed consumption). This could potentially explain the longer luteal phases.

flax seed and improved stress perception

Another set of studies seem to show positive effects of flax seed consumption on hormones associated with stress response, and this is where I think that flax seed might help those who are working toward recovering missing periods, but not there yet.

The first study I want to tell you about looked at stress markers in mice fed either a control diet, or one that contained a commonly used anti-depressant (imipramine), pomegranate peel extract or flax seed extract. After 50 days various hormones were measured – cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Flax seed extract and imipramine showed similar levels of decrease in each of these hormones, which is great for someone trying to recover from hypothalamic amenorrhea / no period, as each of those hormones help suppress the hypothalamus – decreasing levels will only help get the hypothalamus going again!

35 postmenopausal women consumed different varieties of flaxseed containing varied levels of two active components SDG and alpha-linoleic acid. Blood pressure was used as a marker of stress, and all three types of flax seed reduced blood pressure during a frustrating cognitive task, in comparison with the same task without flax seed consumption (the study was a crossover design so some women took the test with flax seed first and without second, for others the order was reversed so the reduction in blood pressure was not due to having taken the test before.) All three varieties reduced plasma cortisol as well, but the Linola 989 variety with the highest SDG showed the highest reduction.

flax seed recommendations

I started researching the effects of flax seed in the context of seed cycling. As I read the scientific literature I noted that there was not a single study that alternated seed types – all the medical literature I could find had people (or animals) taking one seed type consistently. I will present the evidence on the other seeds included in “seed cycling” shortly (pumpkin, sesame, and sunflower seeds) but I have not found any evidence to suggest value in changing between seed types.

Studies show flax alone has the potential to reduce stress hormones, and have positive effects both on the follicular phase (including ovulation) and the luteal phase of a menstrual cycle. Based on the reduction in stress hormones and perceived stress, along with other health benefits and no adverse consequences, I see no reason not to add flax seed to your arsenal as you work to restore missing menstrual cycles or to potentially help with normalizing menstrual cycles that are wonky for other reasons. Instead of making yourself crazy trying to figure out what seeds to take when, as one has to do with “seed cycling”, simply eating ground flax seed every day (the other seeds could be added as you like) might be beneficial. Note that as with other supplements, it is unlikely that taking flax alone, without increasing food intake, reducing high intensity exercise, and reducing stress will be successful. Check out No Period. Now What? for evidence and recommendations on how to do all this.

This is the ground flax I use, from BJs . My mom started adding flax seed to the yogurt she had for lunch every day ages ago, I tried it and liked it, and started adding it too (along with chia seeds, ’cause I like the crunch).

I’d suggest 10g/d as a reasonable amount based on the study finding fewer anovulatory cycles and longer luteal phases. For other health benefits, again, please examine the specific literature to find the optimal form of flax to use and what dose.

Also, note that there have not been any detrimental effects found with flax seed so far for most people, but the recommendation is not to consume flax in large quantities while pregnant as studies in rats do show some negative effects (included in this review). I wouldn’t stress if you’re pregnant and have some, but probably best not to have daily.





Getting the word out!

Helping women with hypothalamic amenorrhea / female athlete triad / missing periods to recover–regain their cycles and realize how much needless energy has been spent on food, exercise, and appearance–has been my passion for the last ten years. For many years I helped women on the HA forum at, but since 2012 my posting there slowed down as I worked on the book.

Now that the book is done… it’s really time to get the word out. We’ve gotten so many positive reviews and comments on our work, like what Amanda said recently,

I want to take a moment to thank you from the bottom of my heart. I’m almost done your book and can see that you’ve poured years and years of your life, heart and soul into that book and raising awareness around HA. I can’t tell you how much I’ve learned and how motivated I’ve become to continue to work on my health and hormonal integrity and to incorporate BALANCE into my life. Not to mention that this book will spearhead an increased awareness of HA and hopefully a new understanding of the importance of maintaining female health……THANK YOU!!!

Meret Boxler, whom I met on a hypothalamic amenorrhea support group on Facebook, has been working on being compassionate with herself, redefining her view of what healthy is and looks like, and focusing on the positives in her life. As a former radio DJ creating a podcast series seemed a natural next step – and she wanted to interview ME!  So I am super excited to share that interview with you. Take a listen, and if you enjoy, please subscribe to her feed, give her lots of likes, and reviews would be fantastic.

LU 003: Nicola Rinaldi – No period. Now what? Health issues from overexercise and too little food.

Subscribe on iTunes (Apple), or on Stitcher (Android)

Shortly thereafter, having gained some confidence from the interview with Meret (on top of which it was a really enjoyable conversation), I was directed to a video on YouTube that contained misinformation about HA and its causes. So I immediately thought that doing my own video would be another fantastic way to get the word out about our hypothalamic amenorrhea recovery book along with basic information about HA that it’s important for people to understand. That video is below – and again, if you could like and comment that would be stellar – the more likes, the more people will be able to find it and educate themselves about missing periods and the effects on our health.

Thanks so much!!! xox Nico