Does Vitex Help Restore Missing Periods?

(This is the first post in a series on supplements and period recovery – see the overview here. The very short version is that I did a survey of women in hypothalamic amenorrhea recovery facebook groups and 53 women had tried 65 different supplements in order to try and recover periods. We are going to examine each of them to see what the scientific evidence shows.)

VITEX

The most common herb/supplement taken in hopes of helping recover missing periods was Vitex, taken by over a third of those who responded to my survey (21/53). This is a shortened name for Vitex Agnus Castus also known as Chasteberry, which is something I learned as I started looking into this. So most women reported taking “vitex’, but some said “agnus castus” or “chasteberry” – as far as I can tell they are synonyms.

Vitex-agnus-castus-foliage

RESEARCH METHODS

I did a search of the medical literature using the following queries in pubmed to find research relevant to understanding whether vitex can help restore a missing period.

Vitex fertility
Vitex amenorrhea
Vitex oligomenorrhea
Vitex luteal phase
Vitex follicular phase
Vitex progesterone
Vitex estrogen
Vitex osteoporosis

RESULTS

The searches came up with between 5-25 results, many overlapping between searches. I read through abstracts where available (a few articles were in languages I don’t speak, or had no abstract available) and the full article if the abstract seemed relevant and I wanted to learn more.

My conclusion is that Vitex Agnus Castus does NOT lead to restoration of cycles in someone experiencing hypothalamic amenorrhea (unless that amenorrhea is due to elevated levels of prolactin), and may in fact be hindering the return of a missing period.

VITEX, ELEVATED PROLACTIN, AND PMS

There is quite a lot of evidence to support the use of Vitex in reducing PMS and hyperprolactinemia. Controlled clinical studies have been performed, and meta-analyses or reviews that examined data from multiple clinical trials found that there was good evidence for these two indications. Hyperprolactinemia causes amenorrhea by suppressing estrogen and progesterone, as happens when a woman is nursing. Aside from breastfeeding, hyperprolactinemia can occur when someone has a benign pituitary tumor (called a microadenoma) – bromocriptine is another drug sometimes prescribed to help in these cases, Vitex seems to work just as well. So if someone has amenorrhea due to elevated prolactin, yes, vitex can help. Prolactin is not elevated in hypothalamic amenorrhea and therefore this mechanism isn’t in play.

The studies I looked at were:

VITEX AND HYPOTHALAMIC AMENORRHEA / NO PERIODS

I found zero evidence for Vitex helping restore cycles after hypothalamic amenorrhea. There were some interesting observations in primates where vitex actually caused infertility in monkeys taking large amounts because the Vitex elevated their progesterone, thus preventing ovulation. I have often read the suggestion to take Vitex to help increase progesterone, but in a normal cycle progesterone is only elevated after ovulation, so consistently higher levels would not be helpful. Just as Provera (synthetic progesterone) or bioidentical progesterone do not “jumpstart” cycles, increasing progesterone through taking Vitex likewise does not change hormones in such a way as to lead to ovulation and thus cycle restoration. (What does work is removing food restrictions and cutting high intensity exercise…)

Evidence:

HOW VITEX WORKS

There are suggestions that Vitex works in the following ways:

  1. Binding dopamine receptors, thereby reducing pituitary secretion of prolactin, which in turn inhibits estrogen and progesterone.
  2. Binding the opioid receptors, similar to b-endorphins. This would decrease secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone, which is already suppressed with HA, therefore the Vitex could very well be prolonging time to recovery.
  3. Containings many estrogenic compounds. However, taking estrogen/progesterone/bcp do not restore menstrual cycles, there is no reason to believe that vitex will.

b-endorphins and hypothalamus

There were a couple of women who reported on my survey that while Vitex did not help with restoring periods, it did help with alleviating anxiety. Binding to the dopamine and opioid receptors might explain this stress relief. But just as with exercise, while the beta-endorphins make it feel stress relieving, the hypothalamus is actually suppressed by the binding of the endorphin receptors.

http://www.hormones.gr/57/article/article.html

Figure from “Exercise and the Stress System”, George Mastorakos et al., HORMONES 2005, 4(2):73-89

VITEX AND BONE DENSITY?

One interesting side note was that there were a few papers that suggested perhaps a positive effect of Vitex on bone density /fracture repair but those studies were performed in animals so I would want to see additional studies in humans before considering recommending Vitex for that reason (especially given the ways in which it might prevent the return of cycles). There was one paper that found increased markers of  bone repair after fracture in women taking Vitex + Magnesium…

RECOMMENDATIONS ON VITEX AND MISSING PERIODS

All in all my conclusion is Vitex is NOT helpful for someone trying to recover missing periods and I would not recommend it.

If you find any evidence from controlled studies, or a mechanistic explanation of Vitex helping with cycle restoration, please share with me! I am happy to revise these recommendations if there is something I missed or new evidence comes to light.

In health,

Nico

4 thoughts on “Does Vitex Help Restore Missing Periods?

  1. Mel says:

    Wow this is really surprising and so helpful to know as I’d been given vitex by my naturopath and have been taking it religiously, thank you so much for your research and sharing 🙂

    • anticapress@gmail.com says:

      It seems that there are a lot of things that are suggested may help based on anecdotal experiences that don’t necessarily translate from one person to another… I have another post in the works on acetyl-l-carnitine for which there is good evidence of helping with cycle resumption… we also talk about that in our book 🙂 -Nico

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