There are five factors that play into when a woman stops ovulating and has no period due to hypothalamic amenorrhea, aka HA. The most common combination is undereating/underfueling, and overexercising/overtraining. But… that is far from the only way to get HA. Stress alone can cause one to miss a period; add in a little bit of food restriction or increase in exercise, and that one missed period turns into many. Or perhaps you were in a larger body at one point and lost more than 10 lb to get to a “normal” weight… that alone can cause missing periods in some, but add that weight loss to food group restriction, like a low-carb or low-fat diet, and boom. No periods. (There are other reasons behind no periods, of course, one of the most common being PCOS… all of this is discussed in more detail in our book).
Let’s go through the factors one by one, and I’ll share some more data from our survey respondents with you.
The first factor we’ll consider is exercise. I shared last week that the amount of exercise can vary widely among women with HA, although we do tend to exercise more than four days a week and for an hour or more at a time. What’s interesting, though, is when you look at exercise intensity. That is another part of the equation. We asked our survey respondents about the intensity of their exercise when their periods were missing versus prior to that, when periods were normal.
The two lines show exercise intensity on a scale where 0 is sitting, 5 is moderate exercise like a fast walk or slow jog, heartrate in the 140-149 range; 10 is a personal record pace, heartrate 190+. Each point shows the percentage of 278 women who described the average intensity of exercise they performed prior to having hypothalamic amenorrhea compared with the average intensity when their periods were missing. You can clearly see a shift to the right, denoting higher exercise intensity when periods disappeared. With normal periods, the average intensity was between 4-6; when periods were absent, average intensity was more like 6-8.
The second factor is eating. In my case, I started limiting myself to 1500 calories a day, because that’s what my (male) coworkers were doing in an attempt to lose weight. I thought, hey, that should work for me, as a woman I need fewer calories than my guy friends, but I exercise more, so sure, let’s go with 1500. I made myself an Excel file in which I tracked every morsel that passed my lips, and if I didn’t know the exact number of calories I would overestimate so I didn’t “eat too much.”
Not all our survey respondents tracked how many calories they were eating, but among those who did, my experience was fairly typical. The average consumption when our survey respondents had hypothalamic amenorrhea was 1481 calories a day.
This is something that many doctors don’t even ask about when a woman is missing her period. They look at the woman and her physique/BMI, and if she “looks” normal, they don’t dig any further. But many of us are severely restricting the amount of food we eat, mostly in order to maintain/attain the societal idea of thinness. Never mind the cost.
If we’re not restricting the amount of food, there is often a feeling of wanting to avoid “unhealthy” food, whatever that might mean to you. For some it’s fat, for some carbs, for some cooked food… regardless, the mindset that you have to watch what you eat can cause inadvertent calorie restriction, and also mental stress (see tomorrow’s post!)
Were you exercising more or more intensely when you had hypothalamic amenorrhea than before or afterwards? Did you track and restrict calories, or avoid certain food groups?
P.S. Feel free to download and share any of the graphs from these posts!